Efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine, the nationally-recommended artemisinin combination for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria, in southern Laos

Title
Efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine, the nationally-recommended artemisinin combination for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria, in southern Laos
Authors
Mayxay, M; Khanthavong, M; Chanthongthip, O; Imwong, M; Pongvongsa, T; Hongvanthong, B; Phompida, S; Vanisaveth, V; White, NJ; Newton, PN
Keywords
ARTESUNATE PLUS MEFLOQUINE; SULFADOXINE-PYRIMETHAMINE; DIHYDROARTEMISININ-PIPERAQUINE; THERAPEUTIC-EFFICACY; SAVANNAKHET PROVINCE; CHLOROQUINE; BENFLUMETOL; RESISTANCE; THAILAND; MARKERS
Issue Date
2012
Publisher
MALARIA J
Citation
Malar. J.;08-Jun;2012;11;
Abstract
Background: The Lao Government changed the national policy for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria from chloroquine to artemether-lumefantrine (AL) in 2005. Since then, no information on AL efficacy has been reported. With evidence of resistance to artemisinin derivatives in adjacent Cambodia, there has been a concern as to AL efficacy. Monitoring of AL efficacy would help the Lao Government to make decisions on appropriate malaria treatment. Methods: The efficacy of a three-day, twice daily oral artemether-lumefantrine for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Xepon District, Savannakhet Province, southern Laos was studied over 42 days follow-up. This was part of a trial of thiamin supplementation in falciparum malaria. Results: Of 630 patients with P. falciparum enrolled in the trial of thiamin treatment, 549 (87%, 357 children <= 15 years and 192 adults) were included in this study. The per protocol 42-day cure rates were 97% (524/541) [96% (337/352) for children and 99% (187/189) for adults, p = 0.042]. By conventional intention-to-treat analysis, the 42-day cure rates adjusted for re-infection, were 97% (532/549) [96% (342/357) in children and 99% (190/192) in adults, p = 0.042]. The proportion of patients who remained parasitaemic at day 1 after treatment was significantly higher in children [33% (116/356)] compared to adults [15% (28/192)] (p < 0.001) and only one adult patient had detectable parasitaemia on day 2. There were no serious adverse events. Potential side effects after treatment were reported more commonly in adults (32%) compared to children (15%) (p < 0.001). Patients with recrudescent infections were significantly younger, had longer mean time to fever clearance, and had longer median time to parasite clearance compared to those who were cured. Conclusions: The current nationally-recommended anti-malarial treatment (artemether-lumefantrine) remains highly efficacious for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria five years after introduction in Laos. Regular monitoring is required in case artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum parasites should appear.
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/11267/2382
ISSN
1475-2875
Appears in Collections:
5.Mahosot Hospital > Journal articles
Files in This Item:

qrcode

Items in LAOSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.