The paper presents the results of a study conducted to investigate indoor air quality within residential dwellings in Lao PDR. Results from PM(10), CO, and NO(2) measurements inside 167 dwellings in Lao PDR over a five month period (December 2005-April 2006) are discussed as a function of household characteristics and occupant activities. Extremely high PM(10) and NO(2) concentrations (12 h mean PIA concentrations 1275 +/- 98 mu g m(-3) and 1183 +/- 99 mu g m(-3) in Vientiane and Bolikhamxay provinces, respectively; 12 h mean NO(2) concentrations 1210 +/- 94 mu g m(-3) and 561 +/- 45 mu g m(-3) in Vientiane and Bolikhamxay, respectively) were measured within the dwellings. Correlations, ANOVA analysis (univariate and multivariate), and linear regression results suggest a substantial contribution from cooking and smoking. The PM(10) concentrations were significantly higher in houses without a chimney compared to houses in which cooking occurred on a stove with a chimney. However, no significant differences in pollutant concentrations were observed as a function of cooking location. Furthermore, PM(10) and NO(2) concentrations were higher in houses in which smoking occurred, suggestive of a relationship between increased indoor concentrations and smoking (0.05 < p < 0.10). Resuspension of dust from soil floors was another significant source of PM(10) inside the house (634 mu g m(-3), p < 0.05).