We surveyed Nongceng, a village in a south-eastern province of Lao PDR, for malaria and its vectors. Nongceng is situated in a basin and surrounded by rice fields. In February 1998 (dry season), 28.6% of 126 villagers were infected with malaria, and in September 1998 (rainy season), 16.3% of 147 villagers. The prevalence of malaria infection was consistently high in children under 10, and the predominant malaria species was Plasmodium falciparum. In brief surveys of the mosquitoes performed on the same day as the malaria surveys, 2007 Anopheles females from 12 species were collected by means of human bait, animal bait and resting collections. Of the vector species known to be important in transmitting malaria in neighbouring Thailand - An. minimus, An. dirus, and An. maculatus groups - only An. minimus was found. Its density was, however, very low in both seasons and it was therefore unlikely to be the vector. In fact, An. nivipes accounted for more than 65% of all mosquitoes collected and was the most common species collected from human baits. The results of this study show that endemic areas of malaria in Lao PDR are not necessarily related to forest. Rather, An. nivipes is suspected to be the most important vector.